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When brains of the fruit fly are labeled with an antibody binding to a protein required for learning and memory, its mushroom bodies light up when viewed under a microscope. Here, the mushroom bodies are superimposed onto an image of the fly brain. (Image: Gabriella Wolff and Nicholas Strausfeld) When brains of the fruit fly are labeled with an antibody binding to a protein required for learning and memory, its mushroom bodies light up when viewed under a microscope. Here, the mushroom bodies are superimposed onto an image of the fly brain.